Search form

TitleApplying hiPSCs and Biomaterials Towards an Understanding and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsLacalle-Aurioles, María, Camille Cassel de Camps, Cornelia E. Zorca, Lenore K. Beitel, and Thomas M. Durcan
JournalFront Cell Neurosci
Volume14
Pagination594304
Date Published2020
ISSN1662-5102
Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults and has a profound impact on the socio-economic wellbeing of patients and their families. Initially, brain damage is caused by mechanical stress-induced axonal injury and vascular dysfunction, which can include hemorrhage, blood-brain barrier disruption, and ischemia. Subsequent neuronal degeneration, chronic inflammation, demyelination, oxidative stress, and the spread of excitotoxicity can further aggravate disease pathology. Thus, TBI treatment requires prompt intervention to protect against neuronal and vascular degeneration. Rapid advances in the field of stem cells (SCs) have revolutionized the prospect of repairing brain function following TBI. However, more than that, SCs can contribute substantially to our knowledge of this multifaced pathology. Research, based on human induced pluripotent SCs (hiPSCs) can help decode the molecular pathways of degeneration and recovery of neuronal and glial function, which makes these cells valuable tools for drug screening. Additionally, experimental approaches that include hiPSC-derived engineered tissues (brain organoids and bio-printed constructs) and biomaterials represent a step forward for the field of regenerative medicine since they provide a more suitable microenvironment that enhances cell survival and grafting success. In this review, we highlight the important role of hiPSCs in better understanding the molecular pathways of TBI-related pathology and in developing novel therapeutic approaches, building on where we are at present. We summarize some of the most relevant findings for regenerative therapies using biomaterials and outline key challenges for TBI treatments that remain to be addressed.

DOI10.3389/fncel.2020.594304
Alternate JournalFront Cell Neurosci
PubMed ID33281561
PubMed Central IDPMC7689345