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TitleScreening for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by using cytokeratin 18 and transient elastography in HIV mono-infection.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBenmassaoud, Amine, Peter Ghali, Joseph Cox, Philip Wong, Jason Szabo, Marc Deschênes, Maria Osikowicz, Bertrand Lebouche, Marina B. Klein, and Giada Sebastiani
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2018
KeywordsAdult, Cross-Sectional Studies, Elasticity Imaging Techniques, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Keratin-18, Male, Middle Aged, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

BACKGROUND AND AIM: HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a leading cause of end-stage liver disease in Western countries. Nonetheless, due to the invasiveness of liver biopsy, NASH remains poorly understood in HIV mono-infection. We aimed to characterize the prevalence and predictors of NASH in unselected HIV mono-infected patients by means of non-invasive diagnostic tools.

METHODS: HIV-infected adults without significant alcohol intake or co-infection with hepatitis B or C underwent a routine screening program employing transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and the serum biomarker cytokeratin-18 (CK-18). NASH was diagnosed non-invasively as the coexistence of fatty liver (CAP ≥248 dB/m) and CK-18 >246 U/L. Identified cases of NASH were offered a diagnostic liver biopsy. Predictors of NASH were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: 202 consecutive HIV mono-infected patients were included. NASH was non-invasively diagnosed in 23 cases (11.4%). Among them, 17 underwent a liver biopsy, and histology confirmed NASH in all cases. The prevalence of NASH was higher in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (17.1%), insulin resistance defined by homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (25%), those with detectable HIV viral load (42.9%) and those with elevated ALT (53.6%). After adjustment, higher HOMA-IR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; p = 0.03) and ALT (aOR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.50-3.79; p<0.001) were independent predictors of NASH.

CONCLUSIONS: NASH, diagnosed by a non-invasive diagnostic approach employing CK-18 and TE with CAP, is common in unselected HIV mono-infected individuals, particularly in the presence of insulin resistance and elevated ALT.

Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID29381754
PubMed Central IDPMC5790260