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TitleVAMP4 directs synaptic vesicles to a pool that selectively maintains asynchronous neurotransmission.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsRaingo, Jesica, Mikhail Khvotchev, Pei Liu, Frederic Darios, Ying C. Li, Denise M. O. Ramirez, Megumi Adachi, Philippe Lemieux, Katalin Toth, Bazbek Davletov, and Ege T. Kavalali
JournalNat Neurosci
Date Published2012 May
Keywords6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, Ammonium Chloride, Analysis of Variance, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Calcium, Cells, Cultured, Cholecystokinin, Egtazic Acid, Electric Stimulation, Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Hippocampus, Humans, Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Microscopy, Immunoelectron, Mutation, Neurons, Patch-Clamp Techniques, Protein Binding, Protein Transport, R-SNARE Proteins, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, RNA Interference, SNARE Proteins, Synapses, Synaptic Transmission, Synaptic Vesicles, Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25, Syntaxin 1, Transfection, Valine, Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2

Synaptic vesicles in the brain harbor several soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. With the exception of synaptobrevin2, or VAMP2 (syb2), which is directly involved in vesicle fusion, the role of these SNAREs in neurotransmission is unclear. Here we show that in mice syb2 drives rapid Ca(2+)-dependent synchronous neurotransmission, whereas the structurally homologous SNARE protein VAMP4 selectively maintains bulk Ca(2+)-dependent asynchronous release. At inhibitory nerve terminals, up- or downregulation of VAMP4 causes a correlated change in asynchronous release. Biochemically, VAMP4 forms a stable complex with SNAREs syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 that does not interact with complexins or synaptotagmin-1, proteins essential for synchronous neurotransmission. Optical imaging of individual synapses indicates that trafficking of VAMP4 and syb2 show minimal overlap. Taken together, these findings suggest that VAMP4 and syb2 diverge functionally, traffic independently and support distinct forms of neurotransmission. These results provide molecular insight into how synapses diversify their release properties by taking advantage of distinct synaptic vesicle-associated SNAREs.

Alternate JournalNat. Neurosci.
PubMed ID22406549
PubMed Central IDPMC3337975
Grant ListF32 MH093109-01 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
F32 MH093109-02 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MC_U105178791 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MH066198 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH066198 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH066198-06A2 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH066198-07 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH066198-08 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH066198-09 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH068437 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH068437-05 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States